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The BITSAVERS.ORG Documents Library: Xerox Corporation

Xerox Corporation (pron.: /ˈzɪərɒks/) is an American multinational document management corporation that produced and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. Xerox is headquartered in Norwalk, Connecticut (moved from Stamford, Connecticut in October 2007), though its largest population of employees is based in and around Rochester, New York, the area in which the company was founded.

It was hardware and software designers at Xerox that invented several of the most important elements of personal computing still in use today, such as the graphic interface, the computer mouse and desktop computing. These features were frowned upon by the then board of directors, who ordered the Xerox engineers to share them with Apple technicians. The features were taken on by Apple and, later, Microsoft. Partly thanks to these features, these two firms would then go on to duopolize the personal computing world.

Xerox was founded in 1906 in Rochester as The Haloid Photographic Company, which originally manufactured photographic paper and equipment. The company subsequently changed its name to Haloid Xerox in 1958 and then simply Xerox in 1961. Xerography, a modern word meaning "dry writing" developed from two Greek roots, is the name of the process invented in 1938 and developed by the Haloid Company. The company came to prominence in 1959 with the introduction of the Xerox 914, the first plain paper photocopier using the process of Electro-photography, (later changed to xerography) discovered by Chester Carlson, which he developed with John H. Dessauer. The 914 was so popular that by the end of 1961 Xerox had almost $60 million in revenue. Revenues leaped to over $500 million by 1965.

In 1970, under company president Charles Peter McColough, Xerox opened the Xerox PARC (Xerox Palo Alto Research Center) research facility. The facility developed many modern computing technologies such as the graphical user interface (GUI), Laser printing, WYSIWYG text editors and Ethernet. From these inventions, Xerox PARC created the Xerox Alto in 1973, a small minicomputer similar to a modern workstation or personal computer. This machine can be considered the first true Personal Computer, given its versatile combination of a cathode-ray-type screen, mouse-type pointing device, and a QWERTY-type alphanumeric keyboard. But the Alto was never commercially sold, as Xerox itself could not see the sales potential of it. It was, however, installed in Xerox's own offices, worldwide and those of the US Government and military, who could see the potential. Within these sites the individual workstations were connected together by Xerox's own unique LAN, The Ethernet. Data was sent around this system of heavy, yellow, low loss coaxial cable using the packet data system. In addition, PARC also developed one of the earliest internetworking protocol suites, the PARC Universal Packet.

In 1979, Steve Jobs made a deal with Xerox's venture capital division: He would let them invest $1 million in exchange for a look at the technology they were working on. Jobs and the others saw the commercial potential of the WIMP (Window, Icon, Menu, and Pointing device) system and redirected development of the Apple Lisa to incorporate these technologies. Jobs is quoted as saying, "They just had no idea what they had." In 1980, Jobs invited several key PARC researchers to join his company so that they could fully develop and implement their ideas.

In 1981 Xerox released a system similar to the Alto, the Xerox 8010 Star. It was the first commercial system to incorporate technologies that have subsequently become commonplace in personal computers, such as a bitmapped display, window-based GUI, mouse, Ethernet networking, file servers, print servers and e-mail. The Xerox 6085 Star, despite its technological breakthroughs, did not sell well due to its high price, costing $16,000 per unit. A typical Xerox Star-based office, complete with network and printers, would have cost $100,000. In the mid 1980s, Apple considered buying Xerox; however, a deal was never reached. Apple instead bought rights to the Alto GUI and adapted it into to a more affordable personal computer, aimed towards the business and education markets. The Apple Macintosh was released in 1984, and was the first personal computer to popularize the GUI and mouse amongst the public.

The company was revived in the 1980s and 1990s, through improvement in quality design and realignment of its product line. Development of digital photocopiers in the 1990s and a revamp of the entire product range—essentially high-end laser printers with attached scanners, known as Multi Function Machines, or just MFMs, these were able to be attached to computer networks—again gave Xerox a technical lead over its competitors. Xerox worked to turn its product into a service, providing a complete document service to companies including supply, maintenance, configuration, and user support. To reinforce this image, the company introduced a corporate signature, "The Document Company" above its main logo and introduced a red digital X. The digital X symbolized the transition of documents between the paper and digital worlds.

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From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: 820-II :: 9R80758 Xerox Professional Computer Technical Reference 1984
Topics: data, interrupt, equ, address, disk, command, byte, cpu, cal, port, operating system, zilog...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: xns :: XNSG058504 XNS Introduction
Topics: xerox, xns, network, communication, systems, ethernet, electronic, system, internet, xerox network,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: 820-II :: 610P72384 820-II Technical Reference 1984
Topics: equ, ret, cal, defb, address, disk, data, command, xerox, byte, operating system, balcones...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: interlisp :: 3101274 InterlispD 3 Oct85
Topics: file, window, stream, returns, user, functions, character, function, font, characters, image...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: 820 :: Xerox820 SoftwDevRef
Topics: interrupt, data, ret, defb, port, cpu, equ, rom, clock, defs, defs defs, defb defb, monitor rom,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: 820 :: Xerox820 CPM2.2 RefMan
Topics: disk, file, command, program, data, drive, equ, address, memory, disk drive, source file, general...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: dolphin :: D0 microcode
Topics: goto, code, stkp, output, input, xor, tho, task, rtemp, command, locations reserved, alto code,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: alto :: Whole ALTO World Newsletter 1977-1980
Topics: alto, files, file, xerox, data, system, disk, program, systems, user, xerox internal, press files,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: xns :: XNSG 068504 Xerox System Network Architecture General Information Manual Apr85
Topics: xerox, network, xns, systems, protocol, architecture, data, electronic, interpress, manual, xerox...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: 820 :: 9R80240 820 Information Processor CPM 2.2 Manual Aug81
Topics: file, disk, command, program, equ, data, memory, console, digital, address, system components,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: alto :: schematics :: AltoIIMaintSchem 1978
Topics: xerox, aliixm, corporation, rank, alto, california, data, exclusive, copied, manufacture, xerox...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: 820-II :: 9R80448 820-II CPM 2.2 Reference Jun82
Topics: disk, file, command, program, data, equ, drive, memory, address, disk drive, system components,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: dolphin :: D0 Schematics
Topics: gnd, rev, xerox, soo, designer, ohm, file, pin, project, vcc, rosen rev, xerox project, designer...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: interlisp :: 3101272 InterlispD 1 Oct85
Topics: returns, functions, function, list, stack, interlisp, user, variable, form, file, floating point,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: alto :: schematics :: AltoI Schematics
Topics: clk, jan, clr, dout, pullup, rso, din, alu, rsi, storex, clk clr, disk controller, cet clk, sense...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: xns :: XNS Brochure
Topics: xerox, ibm, network, vax, communication, access, iii, emulation, electronic, users, xerox network,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: interlisp :: 1974 InterlispRefMan
Topics: user, function, list, subr, functions, expression, error, file, foo, interlisp, current expression,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: svc :: 6085 serviceManual
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Topics: disk, rigid, floppy, pwb, drive, pcs, press, processor, rap, diagnostics, rigid disk, disk drive,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: 820-II :: 9R080445 820-II Word Processing 1982
Topics: printer, press, disk, file, ctrl, menu, type, text, document, return, press ctrl, press return,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: dandelion :: Dandelion MPCodes Mar85
Topics: recovery, fru, xerox, code, functional, replace, disk, head, cleaning, procedure, xerox recovery,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: interlisp :: 3101273 InterlispD 2 Oct85
Topics: file, user, function, package, functions, command, list, commands, expression, dwim, file package,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: parc :: techReports :: CSL-81-9 Remote Procedure Call
Topics: remote, procedure, call, rpc, distributed, node, calls, semantics, mechanism, interface, remote...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: dolphin :: D0 diagUG Apr80
Topics: writemessage, subtest, addr, alu, store, test, mcount, program, increment, control store, store...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: mesa :: princ ops :: Mesa Processor Principles of Operation Version 4.0 May85
Topics: pointer, stack, procedure, byte, processor, instruction, frame, instructions, mesa, data, mesa...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: parc :: techReports :: CSL-78-3 Empirical Estimates of Program Entropy
Topics: pattern, var, entropy, cases, dot, sample, dollar, program, markov, pattern set, pattern data,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: 820 :: 9R80238 820 Information Processor Word Processing 1981
Topics: press, printer, file, disk, ctrl, menu, text, type, document, return, press ctrl, press return,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: svc :: MP codes
Topics: recovery, fru, functional, code, xerox, final, replace, disk, head, cleaning, xerox recovery, head...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: maxc :: MAXC microAsm
Topics: symbol, integer, maxc, mrg, memory, assembler, microprogram, palo, center, xerox, palo alto,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: dolphin :: D0 microprogManual
Topics: midas, memory, command, instruction, symbol, file, micro, address, simulator, input text, symbol...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: 860 :: Word Processing on the Xerox 860 1984
Topics: key, document, format, operator, text, press, xerox, processing, word, option, word processing,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: 820 :: Xerox Vendor Involvement Newsletter 1984-85
Topics: xerox, disk, software, program, operating, ibm, programs, data, rigid, file, operating system,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: mesa :: 5.0 1979 :: documentation :: CSL 79-3 Mesa Language Manual Version 5.0 Apr79
Topics: type, procedure, pointer, mesa, array, expression, module, variant, types, program, mesa language,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: parc :: techReports :: CSL-83-11 The Cedar Programming Environment A Midterm Report and Examination
Topics: cedar, user, programming, mesa, xerox, program, viewer, lisp, type, programs, programming...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: daybreak :: Xerox 6085 Flyer Apr85
Topics: xerox, inches, processor, pcs, ibm, display, width, depth, height, software, inches weight, inches...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: mesa :: 4.0 1978 :: listing :: Mesa 4 Utilities :: SegMap.mesa Sep78
Topics: wri, segmentdefs, numberformat, writestr, returns, select, seg, swappedin, writenumber, sandman
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: smalltalk :: Smalltalk Kernel Language Manual Sep77
Topics: class, smalltalk, message, user, method, instance, object, messages, variable, kernel, smalltalk...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: alto :: memos 1978 :: Alto Subsystems Apr78
Topics: file, alto, disk, command, ftp, files, xerox, internal, user, april, xerox internal, trident disk,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: alto :: SilMemos
Topics: tpd, pin, sil, font, file, component, macro, analyze, tlie, files, reference manual, build...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: 820-II :: 820-II Personal Computer Operations Manual
Topics: disk, software, system, data, xerox, rigid, display, printer, floppy, baud, disk drive, rigid disk,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: notetaker :: memos :: 19790620 Z-IOP 1.5 ls
Topics: mov, seg, ine, ret, cursor, call, adr, cmp, ram, xor, mov mov, call call, mov call, seg mov, call...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: parc :: techReports :: SSL-79-5 An Annotated Bibliography on Local Computer Networks Oct79
Topics: computer, ieee, loop, conference, networks, data, network, local, communications, bibliography,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: alto :: schematics :: 1822 Interface
Topics: gnd, alto, connector, shield, arc, cable, imp, echo, blank, hdata, shield gnd, packet radio, mouse...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: parc :: techReports :: The Smalltalk-76 Programming System Design and Implementation
Topics: smalltalk, message, code, class, messages, objects, object, system, rectangle, stylus, smalltalk...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: 820 :: Xerox820 ServiceMan
Topics: drive, pwa, disc, disk, remove, power, harness, processor, assembly, fixed, disk drive, top cover,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: mesa :: 6.0 :: microcode :: Mesa 41 Microcode Jul81
Topics: dispatch, stack, returns, return, entry, branch, pending, stash, byte, pointer, pending branch,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: parc :: techReports :: Xerox PARC Blue and White Series Reports 1973- May90
Topics: csl, print, referenced, longer, july, phd, december, june, programming, january, print csl,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: alto :: schematics :: AltoII nonXM Schematics
Topics: xerox, corporation, rank, alto, copied, strict, articles, prior, california, pin, xerox...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: dandelion :: schematic :: 156P11442B Schematic CP
Topics: netnia, sheet, dwg, gnd, xerox, proprietary, applies, sheets, title, note, xerox proprietary, sheet...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: alto :: BravoCourse
Topics: text, bravo, command, paragraph, esc, type, select, document, tab, file, course outline, bravo...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: alto :: AltoDisc
Topics: xerox, disk, corporation, rank, data, alto, microcircuit, module, diablo, control, xerox...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: dicentra :: 3mEnet
Topics: endcase, breg, areg, nextstate, destination, carryln, vcc, gnd, source, ramf, hal murray, murray...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: parc :: techReports :: EDL-88-3 A New Approach to Imaging IC Layout and Schematics
Topics: color, vlsi, colors, layout, imaging, xerox, user, schematics, plate, intersections, user...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: svc :: 4045 serviceManual
Topics: remove, rap, pwb, replace, sensor, check, switch, code, drum, power, switch power, lotc pwb, enter...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: xsis :: XSIS Product Brochure Jun88
Topics: xerox, analyst, humble, user, smalltalk, systems, parcplace, data, system, asp, parcplace systems,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: parc :: techReports :: VLSI-81-1 The Optical Mouse
Topics: optical, digital, inhibition, mouse, logic, imager, images, sensor, sensors, tracking, smart...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: alto :: schematics :: 216438C Alto II List Wire-Backwiring Board
Topics: altoii, altou, iij, altoi, altcii, loj, altoil, llj, oij, bus, altoii altoii, altoi altoi,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: dorado :: doradoHardwMan
Topics: data, cache, dorado, ifu, instruction, task, hardware, memory, storage, parity, dorado hardware,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: sdd :: memos 1981 :: Collecting and Analyzing Pair Frequency Data for Mesa Opcodes May81
Topics: opcode, cum, sys, percent, frequencies, text, count, ops, mesa, globals, percent sys, cum percent,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: alto :: bcpl :: BCPL Compiler Internals
Topics: ptr, lda, static, ocode, exp, operand, ncg, frame, code, label, exp ptr, static variable, free...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: parc :: techReports :: CSL-79-11 Alto A Personal Computer
Topics: alto, disk, controller, memory, data, microcode, task, hardware, ethernet, processor, personal...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: mesa :: 4.0 1978 :: listing :: Mesa 4 Lister :: Sort.mesa Sep78
Topics: dummyruns, mesa, heapsize, cardinal, heap, inputfinished, itemlsleftover, totalruns, procedure,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: dandelion :: schematic :: 156P11673A Schematic CP
Topics: dwg, sheet, netn, gnd, net, xerox, proprietary, applies, sheets, netnia, sheet applies, cover...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: maxc :: MAXC 8.2 Spec
Topics: interrupt, instruction, center, disk, maxc, processor, xerox, bus, palo, center july, xerox palo,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: alto :: bcpl :: BCPL Reference Manual Sep79
Topics: bcpl, file, dos, exp, procedure, static, word, revised, manual, byte, revised bcpl, bcpl manual,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: alto :: memos 1977 :: Alto Software Packages Oct77
Topics: package, returns, pup, xerox, internal, alto, command, october, procedure, file, xerox internal,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: alto :: ifs trident :: Tricon
Topics: xerox, tricon, corporation, cable, module, rank, trident, mux, disc, drawing, xerox corporation,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: 820 :: Xerox820 WordProcRef
Topics: press, disk, printer, file, ctrl, menu, text, type, return, document, press ctrl, press return,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: dandelion :: DandelionHardwareRefRev2.2
Topics: controller, memory, microcode, data, display, control, hardware, disk, click, hardware manual,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: 860 :: 860 IPS Software
Topics: ips, thz, software, piogiam, xetox, piocebbing, opeiatoi, pioczbbing, woidb, analybib, ips...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: 860 :: Xerox 860 Brochure 1981
Topics: xerox, processing, disc, software, printer, records, operator, system, ips, application, software...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: parc :: techReports :: CSL-89-3 Data Compression with Finite Windows
Topics: compression, data, copy, literal, suffix, finite, length, xerox, string, encoding, data...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: parc :: techReports :: SSL-77-2 Teaching Smalltalk
Topics: smalltalk, students, class, programming, box, methods, student, objects, message, center, teaching...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: alto :: memos 1975 :: Alto Packages Jun75
Topics: returns, bcpl, vector, disk, alto, package, virtual, file, routine, process primitives, floating...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: interlisp-d :: 198510 Koto :: 3101273 Interlisp-D Vol 2 Environment Oct85
Topics: file, user, function, package, functions, command, list, commands, expression, dwim, file package,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. xerox :: alto :: printing :: AltoFontMemos
Topics: fonts, font, alto, tex, characters, generation, character, parc, width, arc, alto fonts, third...